Obeying a good Undergraduate Project Format is very necessary while Writing a graduate thesis/project report as is the final tasks in completing an undergraduate degree and requires a great deal of research and time to complete.
With a little planning, a lot of hard work, and a few simple steps, you can write a graduate thesis project that will impress both your project supervisor and the external committee.
HERE ARE THE UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT FORMAT
1.1. THE REQUIREMENTS
Undergraduate students are required to write a project report. The title, scope and design of the report must be according to the approved Departmental academic board. The students report must show evidence of originality and must be satisfactory as regards literary presentation. It must neither reproduce other people’s work nor be a re-submission of previous work or be a mere literature or field survey.
The following attributes must be assured while writing your undergraduate project report.
- Accuracy in presentation.
- Organization, neatness, conciseness and logicality in writing.
- Consistency in form and arrangement ( this is with respect to margins, characters, tidiness, abbreviations, punctuation, footnotes, citations, references, tables, figures, spellings, numerals etc.).
It is the responsibility of the students to ensure that the above-listed quality attributes are maintained, the departmental board will reject any report that does not meet these required standards.
2.1 FRONT COVER texts
The format for the text on the front cover of the project report is as presented in Appendix 1.
This is the sewn edge of the report and that part of the binding between two joints. The spine text consists of the following: Surname, followed by initials (all written in capital letters), then programme (B.Agric, B.Sc) and then year of graduation (e.g 2009. 2010, etc), in that order. lettering should be in bold.
Example: Nwite O.E. B.Sc. Soil Sc & Environmental Management 2016.
2.3. TITLE PAGE
The title page of the project is the follow the format in Appendix 2.
2.4. CERTIFICATION PAGE
This shall follow the format in Appendix 3. It shall be signed by the supervisor and the Head of the Department (four copies) before approval for the final oral examination is given.
The dedication in a good undergraduate project format is optional and should not exceed 50 words. E.g (I wish to dedicate this work to Almighty God), in all i have 36 words, which is very good score.
This contains just a brief mention of appreciation for assistance received in the course of the study. It should not exceed 300 words. The supervisor(s), Head of Department, Academic staff, Technologist that contributed to the success of the study if it is a research work and any other staff should be acknowledged first before any other group of people.
2.7. TABLE OF CONTENTS
This lists all the various sections of the project report. It includes the chapter titles and major sub-divisions o the chapters, Major headings and chapter titles are typed in upper case (capital letters). Minor sub-headings and sub-divisions of chapters are typed in lower case. Double spacing is maintained throughout except for the minor sub-headings and sub-divisions within the chapter, that are all single spaced.
2.8. LIST OF TABLES
This list all the tables to which references have been made in the text, showing their numbers, title and the pages where they in numerical order. Table should start from 1 to the end irrespective of the chapter it occurred (e.g 1, 2, 3,4, 5,….n) and not 1.2 or 3.5.
2.9. LIST OF FIGURES
This includes all graphs, flow charts or diagrams. Same as in 2.8 above for all figures to which references have been made in the text.
2.10. LIST OF PLATES
This includes all the pictures or photographs used in the course of illustration. Same as in 3.8 for all plates to which references have been made in the text.
The Abstract of your project report should not exceed 350 words. The abstract briefly states the problems or objective(s) of the study, the procedure followed in the course of study, major sources of data and their interpretations as well as major findings and conclusion. It should meet the standard of scholarship expected for the whole project report. The abstract is written as a single paragraph.
3. BODY OF UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT REPORT FORMAT
3.1. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
In general the introduction gives background information on the subject matter. It contains, inter alia, a definition of the scope, justification for the study and the objective of the study.
3.2. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This consists of a review of literature relevant to the study. Most of it should be current.
3.3. CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS
This chapter should contain details of materials used, methods or procedures used to collect primary and secondary data, experimental design or layout, formulae and statistical techniques employed in data analysis.
3.4. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter, the finding of the study, scientific explanations of the findings and inferences drawn from them are given in detail.
3.5. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The conclusion of any project report shall highlight the main findings as contained in the project. It is not meant for discussing the findings, as these should have been given in the appropriate place within the body of the report. Definite recommendations may be made in the light of the findings.
This consists of an alphabetic listing of all sources cited in the text. The information provided should be complete and accurate and should enable the interested reader to locate that source easily in any library or internet.
The project writer should note that all sources cited in the text must be listed accurately but the listing shall not include any source that is not cited in the text. The format for Reference is provided in section 2.8.
An appendix is an additional and supporting material at the end of the report. Such material includes raw data, specimen questionnaire, interview schedule, statistical calculations, computer printouts etc. no reference is usually made to Appendix Table in the text.
3.8. CITATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC STYLE.
3.8.1. Citation in Text. Citation in the text shall be made by means of the author’s name followed by the year of publication. If the reference cited has two authors, the authors names shall be separated with ‘and’ . If however , the reference cited has more than two names, only the name of the first author followed by the term “et al” (in italicized form) shall be used. Where references to more than one paper by the same author(s) in the same year, the suffixes, a, b, c, d etc shall be placed after the year.
The actual format for citations in the text will depend on sentence structure.
Example: Nwite (2010) or (Nwite, 2010); Nwabuzor and Monye (2011) or (Nwabuzor and Monye, 2011); Onwuka, et al. (2012) or (Onwuka, et al., 2012); (Kay, 2013; Brouwer et al., 2014, Brouwer and Njoku, 2009).
3.8.2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC STYLE
(a) Citation made in the text shall be listed alphabetically according to author(s) surname. A number of papers by the same author(s) shall be listed in chronological order, according to the year of publication. Several papers in one year by the same author(s) are given suffixes, a, b, c, d, etc, after the year. In case of multiple authorship, the name of the first author shall be used to determine the alphabetical and chronological order in the list.
(b) Surname of author s shall precede their initails in all cases, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis and then the title of the paper, the journal name, volume number and pages. In the case of books – the author(s), title of book, yar of publication in parenthesis, edition (if any), publishers, place of publication and number of pages, journal names and Book title should not be underlined.
The first author’s name is flushed to the left hand edge. Sbsequent lines are indented suffficiently such that the first author’s name stands out on the left margin. Note that you are to italices all journals.
Nwite, O.E. (2010). Effect of smoke on Abakaliki environment, J. Anin. Breed. Genet. 112: 53 – 6o.
4.1. PROJECT TYPING INSTRUCTIONS
- The project should be computer word-processed,with 12 font size and double-spaced,except for quotations,tables and figures, which may be single-spaced. Reference and fontnotes may be single-spaced within each entry but double-spaced between entries.
- All non-English words(e.g et al.) and biological names (e.g Azadirachia indica) should be italicised, not underlined.
- Paper should be of good quality and typing should be on one side of paper only.
- The size of the paper shall be A4 except for drawings and maps on which there is no restriction.
- The margin of each sheet shall not be less than 4cm on the left hand side,2cm on the right 2.5cm at the top and 2cm at the bottom.
- All pages of the text shall be numbered with Arabic numerals (1,2………) and typed on the top of the page while the preliminary pages shall be in Roman numeral (i,11…….) centered at the bottom of the page.
Chapter number shall consist of “CHAPTER” followed by the number in Arabic numeral (e.g CHAPTER 1) THE TITLE OF THE Chapter should be capitalized,bold and centered below the chapter number. it should be underlined.
- Main section headings are flushed to the left with appropriate numbering reflecting the chapter number and serialization.They are capitalized ,bold and not underlined.
- Sub-heading of the main section headings are also flushed to the left with appropiate numbering reflecting the main section number and serialization.They should neither be capitalized nor underlined but should be bold.
4.2. BINDING INSTRUCTIONS
Copies of successful project must be bound in a standardized form with hard cover. Lettering on the spine should be as given an section 2.2. Lettering in the front cover should be as in Appendix 1. Lettering in both cases should be in go;den colour.
FORMAT FOR WRITING PROJECT CERTIFICATION PAGE:
This is to certify that this project on……………………………………(title of project) is the original work approved and carried out by …………………….(name of student and Reg. No.) under the supervision of ………………………………………….(name of supervisor) in the Department of Soil and Environmental management
1. Supervisor Name ………………….Signature ………………………Date ……………..
2. Haed of Department Name ……………………… Signaure…………..Date